The industry of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like several various other sectors, has changed substantially in recent times. Although the basic formulas have gone through minor modifications, the manufacturing innovations have actually altered dramatically (this uses especially to the techniques of creating little products and ceramic tiles, as well as their product packaging).
At the start of this chapter, it appears appropriate to mention only these changes, however much more on those later related to particular recipes.
Different groups of confectionery products require details molding techniques to make sure that they can be wrapped and also packaged in one of the most appropriate means offer for sale. Probably one of the most successful innovation was the bread bar. These bars allow you to use affordable methods of manufacturing, packaging and display screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were obvious enhancements in the product packaging – both in the materials used and also in the sealing approaches. A lot of benches in order to ensure long life span, to safeguard against insect damages and contamination call for safety product packaging. We take into consideration these consider different phases.
We have currently thought about the production of chocolate, and also as a result it is clear that chocolate as well as facility glazes have a mostly fatty basis, their dampness material is really low (normally less than 1%), and the components are not in aqueous solution.
In several confectionery procedures, the liquifying capacity of sugar (sucrose) is taken into account independently or in mix with other sugars, such as sugar syrup (corn syrup) as well as invert sugar. There are 2 primary teams of sugar confectionery items: a) items in which sugar is totally dissolved, and also b) items in which sugar is partially dissolved, and partly present in the form of tiny strong crystals put on hold in solution. These products may be modified with various other components (as an example, milk and fats). The very first team consists of hard candy, hard and soft milk desserts, toffee and most jelly sweets. The 2nd team consists of products such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and also nougat with a noticable fine-crystalline framework.
Overview confectionery manufacturing technologies
Below we will certainly see that all the variety of textures gotten is an outcome of using numerous technological procedures as well as solutions, every one of which call for special techniques for the formation of private products. Below we look at general technology issues, and also see their particular usages in various other areas of this book.
Smearing and also cutting
The equipment is equipped with cooled down rolls, which enable you to feed the item straight from the device, where it is prepared, to the plate creating tools. After molding and also lamination, the plates are fed to a cooling gadget, and afterwards to conventional reducing gadgets and spreaders. Then the products are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is most likely the earliest technique of generating bars (ceramic tiles) and also private products from plastic items such as fudge, nougat and numerous pastes. A confectionery item in an appropriate plastic state, identified by its dampness, fat content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the called for density. This plate is after that fed to reducing devices to create large strips, which are after that cut into narrow ceramic tiles or bars. Presently, the warm item is fed to cooled rolls, enabling to get multilayer plates. Home plates are continually cut into strips that go through the (” spreading equipment)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or little items. An instance of such a process is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This method is used for the production of candies, fondant and also jelly sweets, some types of milk candies and fudge, marshmallows and various other products that can be gotten in liquid type.
Some items in liquid kind might be formed at a temperature level of about 150 ° C in a metal mold whose surface is covered with a “lubricating substance”.
Pomadnye, želejnye sweet, maršmellou.
These items are normally cast into cells created in starch (see below the area “Fondant coverings”). An extra current development is the automatic precipitation and extraction of fondant shells and also a few other confectionery products using steel mold and mildews (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), along with the rainfall of caramel as well as toffee into silicone molds (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky product that has special homes as well as is resistant to reasonably heats, common for the manufacturing of caramel confectionery.
This approach applies practically specifically to candy caramel and some types of toffee. The usual flavorful candies, sweets with a filler as well as “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing principle is to cool down the made syrup under regulated conditions till it gets to a pliable state. In this state, the item is changed into a type of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the finished products (generally of a certain shape or with a pattern) are acquired from it. The resulting products are right away sent to the air conditioning cupboard as well as wrapping equipment.
To acquire some sorts of sugar and crunchy sweets, a version of this technique is utilized, in which the harness acquired in a similar way is fed to a cutting-wrapping maker, where with the help of high-speed circular knives, little pieces are reduced from it that involved the wrapping equipment.
Extrusion and molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, executed in the manufacturing of several non-food items, has actually been effectively applied in the confectionery industry. The application of this process to the production of different products– from soft products such as marshmallows as well as fondant sugary foods to extremely plastic nougat and also milk chocolates– is defined in  In this instance, the product based on extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle opening account determines the form of the end product, as well as many extruders are geared up with a number of nozzles that develop harnesses that can be cut into bars or little pieces. In fig. 19.2 programs different rolls for extruders, and also fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a system for cutting off little pieces from the hairs. In fig. 19.4 shows the style of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of chewing gum and eating candy.
The layout of the NID bar extruder is slightly different. The feeding is carried out by grooved rollers similarly as in other extruders, but the product to be formed is fed to a 2nd profile roller. The profiled surface of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to guarantee easy separation of the product as well as is utilized to shape the bars into the called for form. The pins assist get rid of the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is possible to make multi-layer bars in which 2 layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from an additional confectionery item. Extrusion works well with other continual production and also glazing approaches.
When extrusion confectionery ought to observe certain preventative measures.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature is of fundamental relevance, particularly when it comes to milk sweet and also nougat, the consistency of which is highly dependent on temperature. Small variations in temperature can bring about big changes in extrusion pressure. For soft milk sweets, a temperature level of 35 to 38 ° C is generally utilized, but much depends upon the sort of item, as well as the precise temperature.
Scenic tour conditions have to be identified empirically. Reduced temperature levels and also high pressures create ko of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat separates throughout extrusion, this suggests inadequate emulsification. Enhancement is attained when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the formulation.
Devastation after extrusion … After extrusion, some products lose their shape, and also the strip, which is nearly round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may come to be significantly flatter. This is due to numerous reasons:.
too expensive a moisture content;.
It was not emulsified fat and also might be also soft;.
the healthy protein of any kind of dairy component is not effectively spread;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline framework has formed or has been ruined by excessive mixing after crystal formation. This defect can be very refined, and also in continual fudge production, its appearance depends upon the minute the taking shape lipstick is added before extrusion. It is feasible to establish the ideal conditions for a particular tools just experimentally. Firms specializing in the manufacturing of extrusion tools have actually performed a huge amount of study in the layout of devices for the extrusion of confectionery products of different consistencies. For some items – such as gummies and eating periodontal – the roll extruder is giving way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These modern technologies are explained in various other areas of guide.
The concept of panning is currently described in Phase 5. There are two types of sugar rolling – difficult and loosened. With difficult knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar as well as syrup are developed on the preferred body (for example, nuts) as well as dried with warm air death in between the used layers. Loose knurling is executed in a similar means, however using cold technology. Soft shells are used (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk loading), as well as the layer is constructed from sugar (or sugar) syrup as well as powdered sugar. After reaching the preferred dimension as well as weight of the layer, the sweets are partially dried out and also covered with polish. The process is fully mechanized, consisting of loading as well as dumping the tanks, automated spraying of syrups (or delicious chocolate), and also control of drying out or cooling air to the storage tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, glucose or corn syrup and invert sugar is usually signified in English by the word “creme” (cream), but some conventional products make use of the alternative “cream”, and in different countries it is called differently.
The fondant is prepared by dissolving sugar as well as glucose syrup (or invert sugar) in water and also concentrating by boiling to a remedy having regarding 88% DM. At ambient temperature level, this solution is supersaturated with sugar and unpredictable, as well as if it is promptly mixed as well as cooled, after that the excess sugar befalls of the service in the form of little crystals. Therefore, the fondant mass has a solid stage of sugar crystals suspended in a fluid stage including a saturated solution of “sugars”.
Without mixing and also cooling huge crystals are created. Beating by itself offers disappointing results, considering that a huge quantity of latent heat of formation is released. If the whipped syrup is left warm, formation reduces and also subsequent slow air conditioning leads to the development of huge crystals. Fondant of good quality need to be soft in uniformity.
Initially, lipstick was prepared making use of only sugar, which was dissolved in water as well as focused by boiling to regarding the level of 88-90% ST. Given that the solubility of sugar at typical temperatures is just 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is very unsteady and takes shape upon quick air conditioning, “offering” very large crystals.
To overcome this downside, an additive was used that created the inversion of a part of the sugar and increased the total solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup right into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, much more ideally, tartar (tartaric acid) are made use of thus additives. The development of invert sugar from sugar is talked about in another phase, however below we just note that such additives decay part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into two monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) as well as fructose. Fructose is far more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and also its visibility with dextrose permits the focused syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This approach of application of the additive is very undependable, because the quantity of invert sugar created varies substantially depending upon the purity of the sugar, the boiling time and also the hardness of the water utilized. Ideal results are acquired by adding to the sugar syrup a certain amount of invert sugar, ready separately.
Lipstick, made from sugar and invert sugar, has a granular framework and also is really wonderful in preference (it is rarely used in modern-day confectionery manufacturing). Sugar (corn) syrup has changed invert sugar in lipstick formulations; it is less sweet, and also the visibility of complex carbs regulates the formation of crystals and also offers a much more thick lipstick, which does not have a loosened (brittle) texture.